Isolation of Foeniculum Vulgare Essential Oils by Subcritical Water Extraction and Compared with Hydro Distillation
Volume Title: 1
2Faculty of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Subcritical water extraction (SWE) of essential oil from Foeniculum Vulgare (F. Vulgare) was performed and compared with customary techniques such as hydro distillation. The amount of main components at different temperatures (90, 107.5, 125, 142.5 and 160 oC) and mean particle sizes (smaller than 0.25 , between 0.25 and 0.5, between 0.5 and 0,71, between 0.71 and 1 and bigger than 1 mm ) and flow rate 1.25 ml/min and 65 min extraction time were investigated at 15 bar pressure in SWE. The separation and recognition of the components were carried out by gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection and GC-mass spectrometry. The best operating conditions for the SWE of F. Vulgare were determined to be at the temperature of 125 oC and flow rate of 1.25 ml/min for 65 min extraction time and between 0.5 and 0.71mm particle size. In compare to hydro distillation method, the SWE method resulted in more valuable essential oil with respect to the oxygenated components.